How You Can Battle Bowel irregularity On Phentermine 37.5 milligram

Bowel problems is one of the most typical negative effects of Phentermine 37.5 milligrams. As well as being distressing and embarrassing, it can genuinely slow down fat loss way too. Ideas describe more details on bowel problems on Apettite supressant 37.5 milligrams from, including why it occurs as well as the how to combat this side-effect.

What’s Bowel irregularity?
Bowel irregularity is a problem that many of us have suffered from in the course of our everyday life. Staying irregular signifies that pooping are not easy or occur more infrequently than usual. Causes can include a change in regimen, stress, and a few medicines, or it could be a signal of an actual health issue. Nevertheless, many instances of irregularity are certainly not critical and frequently take care of themselves inside a short time.
Lots of people believe that you should have a specific number of going number 2 daily or week, but the truth is that everyone is different. While many people go three times a day, other folks will only go 3 times weekly. It’s common to have a single bowel activity each day but nonetheless typically you decide to go is considered standard to suit your needs. It can be no problem to look a couple of days with out them so long as you feel great. But, lower than a few pooping in only a week shows that you might be irregular. Of course, if it is less than once per week then it’s significant.
In addition to troubles transferring bar stools, bowel irregularity may lead to a inflamed stomach, abdomen aches, nausea and vomiting. Additionally, it implies that you’re issuing the build-of spend in your body, so you may really feel fat and gain weight.
Each And Every Phentermine 37.5 milligram from Cause Bowel irregularity?
Like amphetamine, Apettite supressants 37.5 milligram stimulates the central nervous system and brings about contamination. This is the reason other widespread Apettite supressants 37.5 mg unwanted side effects contain xerostomia and headaches and also bowel problems. Dehydration enables you to turn into irregular nevertheless there is inadequate water within the body offered to help get rid of waste materials through chairs, that are usually 75Per cent water.
Irregularity has also been linked to low mood and tension. As a result, a few of the other side outcomes of Apettite supressants 37.5 milligram, including depression and anxiety, could also help with bowel irregularity,. Moreover, many individuals having Apettite supressants 37.5 mg encounter strong hunger-suppression and overeat less energy compared to they employed to. This stop by intake of food may then result in how excess to slow, resulting in irregularity. This is particularly likely if you’re not eating balanced diet program or you are restricting the intake of certain food groups.
The Best Way To Overcome Constipation On Apettite supressant 37.5 milligrams
If you’re generally normal as clockwork then going a short time without having a bowel movement may have you reaching for the laxatives. Even so, it is best to attempt holistic strategies 1st, specially as these could also help to enhance Phentermine 37.5 milligram weight reduction. This is our leading approaches to overcome constipation on Apettite supressants 37.5 milligram:
1. Ingest Far more Normal water
Even before you go through negative effects such as dry mouth and constipation, you ought to increase drinking habits in anticipation of the dehydrating connection between Apettite supressant 37.5 milligram. Drinking water boosts weight-loss too, so it should invariably be section of a healthy lifestyle. Being a general direct you need to drink ten associated with drinking water each day, equal to 2 liters or 68oz. If you begin to encounter constipation then consume two to four additional glasses of normal water each day.
Many people also rely on a glass of hot water with orange in the morning. Hot water raises the tightening in the digestive system, which helps bowel motions. The ” lemon ” aids since it’s substantial acidity articles encourages obese to have points relocating.
2. Prevent Dehydrating Drinks
If you are having a lot more drinking water you ought to prevent drinks such as espresso, soft drink and booze. Our prime sugars ranges in booze and soda make irregularity a whole lot worse, although espresso is extremely drying. Despite the fact that the level of caffeine can be considered a quick fix for constipation, additionally it is a diuretic, meaning required dampness away from barstools, making them really agonizing to pass.

bowel irregularity
3. Increase The Fiber On Your Diet program
If you are following a low-carbo, higher health proteins diet, this could also be creating your irregularity on Apettite supressant 37.5 milligrams. Common guidance for combating irregularity states that you need to restriction higher-body fat low-fiber foods, for example meats, mozzarella dairy product and junk foods, and consume a lot more fiber-prosperous meals, typically within carbs.  Women need 25g of fiber each day while males need 38g. But, not every fibers is produced just as with regards to our digestion programs. Soluble fiber slows down digestion of food and increases fat burning capacity, but it’s the insoluble sort of soluble fiber that can help to aid bowel motions. You can find insoluble in vegetables and fruits – especially in the more difficult-to-chew templates (e.gary. cucumber, all kinds of peppers, apples), wheat wheat bran, and wholegrain variations of items including cereal, bakery, rice and pasta. So, in the interest of your gastrointestinal tract, remember to eat healthy carbs in a structured diet program.
4. Get Some Good Exercising
Lack of exercise is known to make constipation more serious, so taking advantage of workout is an additional way to promote wholesome bowel motions. Even though reasonable to thorough exercising is preferred, just enjoying a quick walk neighborhood might help. Plus, you are going to harvest the additional great things about workout along with quicker weight loss!
5. Decrease Tension
Considering that depressive disorders and strain can induce irregularity, just how Phentermine 37.5 mg can lower your mood may also influence you using this method. Fretting about bowel irregularity and slowing down weight-loss will then cause included anxiety and aggravate signs. Decrease tension by way of yoga, meditation, these anxiety-administration methods, or get a relaxing massage therapy. Massaging your abdominal location in particular relaxes the muscles promoting the digestive tract, assisting you to be a little more typical.
6. Try out Prunes
No it’s not an In .previous wives’ taleIn ., prunes really are effective with regards to bowel problems. Prunes, or dried berries, are abundant in insoluble fiber and contain sorbitol, which acts as a organic natural. Eat 6-12 prunes each day to determine if this assists solve your bowel problems. Or, if you like it is possible to consume 4-8oz of prune veggie juice each day to stimulate a colon movement.
7. Choose A Gentle Non-prescription Cure
If those techniques never help, you may want to make use of a moderate over-the-countertop chair softener including Colace. This is purchased with or without another natural. Or, a laxative like Whole milk of Magnesia might help advertise a colon activity. This would work in around 4 hrs which is stimulant no cost so that you will not are afflicted by cramping pains consequently. Last but not least, numerous users on the Apettite supressants 37.5 mg discussion board have suggested this mineral citrate, which may be obtained as being a water or in tablet variety. Nonetheless, this product is very robust and could be extremely fast-operating. So you need to take fantastic attention and not exceed the dosage recommended.
Must be treated that a stool softeners and laxatives shouldn’t be obtained for longer than two weeks. So, if you are suffering from continuing difficulty with bowel problems on Apettite supressants 37.5 mg then you need to talk to your medical doctor.

Apettite supressant 37.5 mg: Orlando Weight Loss Supplement

Foodstuff is a valuable part in our life. Despite the fact that meals are a dealer of energy to bodies but concurrently incorrect food techniques create large difficulties when it comes to fat and over weight. Obesity is not just a condition within the size within your body but it creates a weakened inside potential to deal with different diseases which at some point causes us to be more prone to illnesses.
Knowing the damaging and irresistible outcomes of weight problems, will need a In .potent” fatty acids and weight reducing method was wanted. Working to match the same requirement, health-related research has come up with weight loss medications like “Apettite supressant 37.5 milligrams In .. Apettite supressant 37.5 mg from is probably the most widely used and efficient excess weight lowering drugs available in the market nowadays.
This is a diet program suppressant which begins displaying its final results after it is eaten. It’s available in an oral dosage kind quite safe to use and stick to. It is available in various strength varieties enabling the person to get a bigger variety of medicine from which to choose. Apettite supressant 37.5 milligrams from provides for a diet regime suppressant whereby maintaining an everyday and manipulated diet plan intake.
As many experts have noticed that diet intake as well as the extra calories from fat in your body is in charge of weight accumulation on our bodies, a desire to get a manage on them is required. Apettite supressants 37.5 milligrams  acts as a diet plan depressent therefore bettering our metabolic process along with a greater system.
Apettite supressants 37.5 milligram  has an extremely inexpensive price tag which can be inexpensive for many folks wanting to experience a mass no cost system. Apettite supressants 37.5 milligram  has been heralded as the most recognized weight lowering drug out there due to its irresistible overall performance and enormous understanding through the customers. It’s an FDA approved substance which adheres to everyone the quality criteria.

Yearnings On Phentermine 37.5 milligrams: What Would They Indicate?

We all experience food cravings, particularly at times of stress, and generally these yearnings include an emotive impulse. Hunger-curbing mechanisms of Phentermine 37.5 mg  help to scale back cravings, but combating our tendencies to nibble on meals we understand can be harmful for all of us generally is one of construction road blocks of weight reduction, even with the help of Phentermine 37.5 milligrams .  One approach to conquer our desires on Phentermine 37.5 mg from is to establish what bodies are actually informing us you can eat in order that we can present it with all the nutrition it’s deficient, that means more healthy body, and much more weight loss success .!

Why Do We Hunger for Certain Foods?
We equate desires with bad food items due to the fact we now have progressed to crave rapid-launch calories which enable the body to really feel ‘safe’ during nerve-racking periods, so these easy calories can ensure us that we don’t need to remain in emergency setting. Nevertheless, the problem with today’s world is that several refined food use fatty acids with salty and nice likes to disguise ingredients which lack nutrition, and thus we simply cannot rely on our instincts to inform us that we are having the right food any more. As children, a lot of us have been usually granted desserts being a deal with or perhaps a reward permanently conduct, very first why candy continually have a very comforting influence, and this type of health and fitness is difficult to manipulate in the future. Furthermore, many of the food we crave trigger the release of this within the mind, and researchers have found out that more powerful urges right url to lower serotonin amounts in most people.
How Exactly Does Phentermine 37.5 milligrams  Control Yearnings?
By issuing the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, this, and dopamine, Phentermine 37.5 milligram  from produces a satiating influence, growing sensations of bounties, suppressing desire for food, and lowering yearnings on Phentermine 37.5 mg . By incorporating your Phentermine 37.5 milligram  with a weight loss multivitamin pill which includes the this forerunner 5-HTP, which facilitates the regulating mood and sleep patterns whilst minimizing desire for food, you can serve your Phentermine 37.5 milligrams  prescription perform a lot more efficiently. Vitamin B12 also improves numbers of serotonin, so incorporating this with 5-HTP and Phentermine 37.5 milligram  will even more increase disposition minimizing desires. A good fat loss multivitamin pill must consist of 5-HTP and Vitamin b12 along with other necessary nutrient elements developed to offer all you want to be healthy while marketing weight-loss by increasing procedure increasing the working of the body.
The Way To Control Urges On Phentermine 37.5 milligrams 
This graph and or chart certainly shows the way your desires on Phentermine 37.5 milligrams  could be been able and also managed by selecting better options rather than the snacks or chips we have a tendency to desire occasionally of tension. However, reduction is better than treatment so in reducing the chance of needing these undesirable food to begin with and jeopardizing a fall-up, it is critical to include these more healthy meals sources of usually-deficient vitamins in your diet regime ought to be course. Furthermore, many people are apt to have yearnings for one kind of food specifically, so by eating much healthier foodstuff causes of the nutrient in connection with this yearning we could address a potential deficit within this source of nourishment as well as helping handle our principal desires on Phentermine 37.5 milligrams .
Moreover, ensuring to feature a diet multivitamin with yourself will help provide a number of these needing-inducing nutrients, such as chromium and this mineral, as well as other nutritional vitamins for example ascorbic acid and e vitamin that assist to manage blood glucose levels and so benefit craving reduction. It is also very interesting to make note of that researchers learned that the hippocampus, which is section of the human brain associated with feelings, has a reasonably substantial energy the mineral magnesium, which could inform you of that cravings certainly are a normal reply to the need to stability our inner thoughts. For this reason it is critical to get steps to boost your feelings and mental well being even though looking to lose weight, as those getting Phentermine 37.5 milligrams  can typically have low disposition on account of anxiousness, stress and sleep loss on account of unwanted effects and lifestyle changes. The climate-boosting connection between 5-HTP and selenium, as within these weight-loss multivitamins created for anyone shedding pounds with Phentermine 37.5 milligrams , may also help one to feel great once more. Low in vitality may also weaken our solve to face up to yearnings on Phentermine 37.5 milligram , which explains why we sometimes discover yourself wandering for the vending appliance around 3 in the evening, when our stamina are in their lowest. To aid avoid today electricity slump, it is possible to improve your Phentermine 37.5 mg  prescription with the addition of an appetite suppressant supplement before lunch time to offer you added burst of their time whilst curbing appetite and helping to control these problems-too-widespread mid-day urges with specifically selected ingredients, for that reason providing you a lot more potential for weight loss accomplishment!
Even though scientific studies are still restricted in urges and just what they indicate, that is definitely fascinating to determine the way you might be able to handle and in many cases control our cravings by making certain were receiving every one of the nutrients the body need for a healthy body when you eat a far more different diet plan and at the top of track of fat-decline-boosting multi-vitamins. In this way we could also prevent complicated these alerts of deficiency in some vitamin supplements for yearnings at a lower price sensible food, and therefore long lasting weight maintenance is a lot more attainable, even though your Phentermine 37.5 milligrams  prescription has concluded.

Some Information About Apettite supressant 37.5 mg

Apettite supressant 37.5 milligram  (best known underneath the substitute labels of: Adipex-P Obenix Oby-Reduce Anoxine-AM Fastin Ionamin Obephen Obermine Obestin-30 Phentrol) from is a powerful fat-reduction medicine 1st approved by the Fda standards in 1959. Available for almost half a century, it’s been an origin of significantly debate considering that the delayed 1990s, in the event it became popular along with fenfluramine, collectively called FenPerPhen. What are connection between this drug, and the way can it solve the body?
Apettite supressant 37.5 mg from functions initiating a fight-or-flight result. It acomplishes this by modifying the Seratonin amounts from the mental faculties and delivering Adrenaline and other connected chemical substances. This can result in, among other things, higher blood vessels-force, feeling of stress, sleeplessness (or, in some, tiredness) plus a loss of appetite.
It is only appropriate for reasonable excess weight-decline and then for quick-time period use. Some contra-indications for use are: it is known to be dangerous for those currently suffering from high blood-pressure or Glaucoma. It can be habit forming, and suddenly giving up using Phemtermine (going Inchescold turkeyIn .) has been known to result in listlessness, depression, as well as other related circumstances. Various other acknowledged unwanted effect include changes in insulin shots requirements (super or hypo glycemia) along with loss of lovemaking operate (erection problems).

Athens – What To See And How To See It


There are so many aspects of current civilization that were birthed in ancient Athens. Among these are theatre, philosophy, democracy, classical art and even the Olympic games. Athens is located on the southern coast of Greece and has existed for over 7,000 years providing a rich culture expressed in a diverse setting. The term diverse fits as you will find ancient relics and sites in some of the same areas where there are trendy boutiques and sidewalk cafes all mixed in together. This mixture of the very old and the new create a very unique experience provided nowhere in the world like it is provided in the ancient city of Athens. You will need to be sure your passport is up to day so if you need to add passport pages, be sure to go online and access a passport site to help you with this so you can be on you way.

World travel requires a passport but computers have simplified all passport needs. Even if you have to get an emergency passport, an online passport is available to help you. No one plans to have their travel documents lost or stolen but if this happens, help is as close as the nearest computer.

Athens is a city that contains many sites that make history come alive so this is certainly the ideal place for lovers of history to visit. High on top of the Acropolis you will find the Parthenon. This famous sight has earned the honor of being named as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Investigating these ruins takes you back to sights names in Greek Mythology related to gods and goddesses, the titans and many other mythological characters. Admission to this site also opens the Theatre of Dionysus, the Roman Agora and the Temple of Olympian Zeus to the traveler.

Being the birthplace of the performing arts, it is no wonder that the arts and culture are very important to the Athenians. While the National Gallery is certainly large and well known, many smaller art galleries populate the city. Athens is also host to approximately 148 theatres so if you are in the mood for a show, the difficult part will be which performance to see. Among the theatres is the famous Herodes Atticus Theatre.

Using a bike or even walking around this city is a wonderful way to see the sights. Green space is always welcome when you travel to big cities and the National Garden of Athens provides an exceptional treat. Within it can be found a small zoo, ponds with ducks, colorful flowers and beautiful landscape with no shortage of a shady tree to relax under and consider the sights of the day.

For those who would like to shop till your drop, your experience will be a little different in Athens. Rather than large malls and strip centers, you will find street vendors selling custom crafts rather than name brand items. Some of the most visited markets are found on Plaka, Kolonaki and Ermou Street. You will find endless selections of shoes, purses and jewelry if you visit here and the quality will certainly not disappoint you.

Authentic cuisine is always interesting in a foreign city and Athens is no exception to this rule. Known for their souvlaki, which is comprised of grilled meat, veggies and a special yogurt sauce, this Athenian staple is considered a treat by all who try it.


Athens – Church of Agioi Theodoroi


Crossing Odos Dragatsaniou, in the end stands the attractive medieval church of Agioi Theodoroi (St. Theodore), built on the site of a church founded in the ninth century, but in its present form dating from between 1050 and 1075. This small cruciform church with its high narrow dome, multiple roofs that lend it an air of rhythmic grace, narrow mullioned windows and decorated central door surmounted by arches, is a precious gem of eleventh century Byzantine architecture.

The earliest form of Byzantine churches was that of the basilica, a long rectangle divided by two or four ranges of columns into three or five naves. Later, during the 11th and 12th centuries, the plan changed to that of a Greek cross within a square, dominated by a dome constructed in brick and often combined with one or more subsidiary domes. The exterior walls consist of square-cut stone with thin brick surrounds and are enriched by bands of decoration, carving and the use of color. Few of these churches were large. Apart from St. Theodore, typical examples are the churches of Kapnikarea and St. Eleutherios.

The glory of the Byzantine church lies not so much in the architecture as to the ethereal beauty of its mosaics or frescoes. From the center of the principal dome Christ looks down upon the faithful and below Him are the Apostles. The Virgin appears in the half dome, while around the sanctuary are symbolic figures and emblems connected with the Eucharist. On the West wall opposite the chancel is the Last Judgement. Colored marble and similar material in the lower walls add to the resplendent beauty of the interior.

The liturgy of the Greek Orthodox Church requires separation of the altar from the laity. The altar is placed in a chancel screened from the congregation by the iconostasis, i.e. the screen dividing the sanctuary from the church proper. This is adorned with pictures of Christ, the Virgin, and Saints, and generally has three doors, the curtains of which are lowered while Mass is being celebrated. The chancel is flanked by the Prothesis, where the bread and wine for the Eucharist are prepared, and by the Diakonikon, or vestry.

In St. Theodore one can also notice the influence of the East on Byzantine art, which was prominent in the period from the mid-9th to mid-11th centuries, when Byzantine artists used a variety of Oriental motifs in their designs. It is probable that the design of pseudo-kufic characters (the script perfected during the 7th century by calligraphers in the city of Kafa, in present-day Iraq) that decorate the terracotta panel below the windows of the facade was inspired by the work of Arab craftsmen.


The Acropolis – Athens, Goddess Athena


Archaeologists tell us that the original city of Athens was situated on the Acropolis. Even in classical times, the Athenians still referred to this area as “the City.” The city of Athens and its patron goddess emerge into the light of history as inseparably coupled. In Mycenaean times each city was built around a central palace, and each palace was under the protection of its patron goddess. Athena was the goddess of the palace on the Acropolis. The names of the city and its goddess are essentially the same: Athena was Athens, and Athens was Athena. She was “The Athenian.” The ancient Athenians seem to have exhibited, during much of their history, precisely those virtues which they traditionally attributed to her. This may be because, when the Athenians imagined their goddess, they did so in their own image.

According to the myth, Zeus fell in love with a beautiful titaness, Metis (“Cunning Intelligence”). Although she repeatedly changed her shape to avoid his unwelcome attentions, as was his way, he persisted. In the end he caught up with her and raped her.

An oracle then announced that Metis would bear Zeus two children: first a daughter then, a son, and the son would be mightier than his father. Just as Zeus had once overthrown and dispossessed his own father, Chronos, so he was destined in his turn, to be overthrown by his own son. In a desperate attempt to avoid sharing his father’s fate, Zeus gave Metis a potion of drugged ambrosia, and then swallowed her whole.

Some time afterwards a terrible headache came upon him. In great pain, he sought the advice of Hermes, whose only suggestion was that Hephaestos, the smith of the gods, should open his head in order to allow the cause of his pain to escape. Zeus was so desperate that even this drastic remedy was preferable to doing nothing, and Hephaestos was duly summoned to cleave open Zeus’ head with his mighty axe. When he did so, to the astonishment of all the immortals, Athena sprang out with a great war-cry, fully-formed, wearing armour and bearing arms.

Zeus’ daughter not only became the patron of many arts at that time normally considered masculine preserves, such as ceramics, she was also credited with a distinctly unfeminine warlike nature. When the Olympian gods were faced with a titanic struggle against the giants, Athena played a major role in the war, defeating the giant Enkelados in single combat. She came to be depicted not merely as a virgin goddess, but, as an ancient Roman writer put it, as a virago: as a female capable of playing a leading role in a world dominated by men.

It came to be said that the reason for the birth of this goddess lay in a wager between Zeus and his consort, Hera, as to which of them could generate the better progeny entirely alone and unaided. By herself, Hera managed to produce only the crippled god, Hephaestos and a monster; while Zeus was able to bring forth, in Athena, one of the greatest of the Immortals.

This seems to have been a picturesque reference to a widespread belief, which was to appear later in the works of the philosopher Aristotle: that the father alone is responsible for generating his children, and for providing them with their inherited characteristics, and that their mother affords them nothing more than a temporary shelter and sustenance in her womb during her pregnancy.

This is a striking example of the strong climate of male chauvinism which dominated the early classical period in ancient Greece, which is very evident in myth and legend.


Ancient History – Athens


Archaeologists have found evidence that Athens has been inhabited from at least the fifth millennium BC. The site would have been attractive to early settlers for a number of reasons: its location in the midst of productive agricultural terrain; its closeness to the coast and the natural safe harbour of Piraeus; the existence of defensible high ground, the Acropolis (from akron and polis, or ‘city on the high ground’); and the proximity of a natural source of water on the north-west side of the Acropolis.

Traces of Mycenaean fortifications from the thirteenth century AC can still be seen on the Acropolis, including some foundations belonging to what must have been a palatial structure. The fortifications, known as the ‘Pelasgian’ walls (after the indigenous people believed to have built them before the arrival of the Greeks around 2000 BC), remained in use until the Persian Wars of 490-480 BC. One stretch behind the temple of Athena Nike appears to have been deliberately preserved in the Classical period.

There was a decline of Mycenaean society across the Greek world around the end of the twelfth century BC. Whether this was directly connected with the Trojan War (around 1184 BC), or the so-called Dorian Invasion thought to have taken place soon after this conflict, Athens does not appear to have succumbed to an attack. The Mycenaean royal family of Pylos is said to have taken refuge in Athens after their city’s fall to the Dorians. One of its members, Codros, became king of his adoptive city.

The collapse of Mycenaean civilization left Greece in political, economic and social decline, accompanied by loss of artistic skills, literacy and trade networks. The Mycenaean form of writing, known as Linear B, was completely forgotten, and the Greek alphabet did not emerge until the late eighth century BC as the new form of writing. At this time city states began to emerge throughout the Greek world, governed by oligarchies, or aristocratic councils. Thirteen kings ruled in Athens after Codros, until in 753 BC they were replaced by officials with a ten-year term, known as decennial archons, and in 683 BC by annually appointed eponymous archons.

Conflict between the oligarchs and the lower classes, many of whom had been reduced to slavery, led to a series of reforms that paved the way for the emergence of the world’s first true democracy. Around 620 BC the lawmaker Dracon set up wooden tablets on the Acropolis known as axones. These were inscribed with civil laws and punishments so harsh that the death penalty was prescribed even for minor crimes, giving rise to the term `draconian’ which is still used today. Dracon’s intervention did little to ensure order, prompting representatives of the nobles and lower classes in 594 BC to appoint the statesman and poet Solon as archon.

Solon terminated aristocratic rule, setting up a representational government where participation was determined not by lineage or bloodline, but wealth. He eliminated slavery based on debt, and restituted freedom and land to those who had been enslaved. Solon created a `Council of Four Hundred’ from equal numbers of representatives of the Ionian tribes to which the Athenians claimed to belong, and instituted four classes of citizenry.

Peisistratos, Solon’s younger cousin, became tyrant (tyrannos) of Athens in 545 BC. He ensured the Solonian constitution was respected and governed benevolently. After Peisistratos’ death, however, things took a negative turn and anti-Peisistratid sentiment grew. By 510 BC King Cleomenes of Sparta was asked to assist in deposing Peisistratos’ son Hippias. Hippias sought refuge in Persia at the court of King Darius.

Soon after, the aristocrat Cleisthenes promised to institute further reforms giving a more direct role to citizens in government. His reforms were passed in 508 BC, and democracy was established in Athens. A new `Council of Five Hundred’ (the Boule) replaced the ‘Council of Four Hundred’, with equal representation from the various tribes. Cleisthenes is also credited with instituting the system of ostracism, which ‘voted’ an individual considered dangerous to democracy into exile for ten years.

It is uncertain when the former Mycenaean citadel was transformed into a sacred precinct but by the late eighth century BC a modest temple (or perhaps more than one) stood on the plateau. The oldest and holiest cult image on the Acropolis was the statue of Athena Polias (Protectress of the City), a crude olive-wood figure, so old that Athenians of the Classical period believed it had either fallen from heaven or been made by Cecrops or Erichthonios. This sacred image of Athena was ritually ‘dressed’ every year in a peplos, a sacred robe, as part of the Panathenaic festival.

A temple is thought to have been built around 700 BC to the south of the later, Classical Erechtheion, to house the statue of Athena Polias. The first major building of which there are significant remains on the Acropolis was the so-called ‘Bluebeard Temple’, built in the Archaic period around 560 BC. The ‘Bluebeard Temple’ is thought by some to have stood to the south of the later Erechtheion. Ancient texts mention a mysterious building or precinct contemporary to the ‘Bluebeard Temple’, called the Hecatompedon, or ‘Hundred-footer’. Whatever this structure or place was, it gave its name to the principal room of the Classical Parthenon, perhaps because the later building occupies the same site.

With the expulsion of Hippias a new temple was built on the Acropolis, its foundations still visible to the south of the later Erechtheion. This building, the Archaios Naos, or ‘ancient temple’, is likely to have been deliberately commissioned around 506 BC as a replacement for the ‘Bluebeard Temple’.

The first Persian invasion of 490 BC saw the victory of the Athenians at the battle of Marathon against the forces of King Darius of Persia. The following year the elated Athenians leveled an area on the south side of the Acropolis and began construction of the Old Parthenon. A new gateway to the Acropolis was also commenced, known as the Old Propylaia.

This post-Marathonian building program on the Acropolis came to a violent end in 480 BC when Xerxes, son of King Darius, led a second Persian invasion of Greece. Athens had to be evacuated and Xerxes razed the city and buildings on the Acropolis. Under the command of Themistocles, the Athenians destroyed the Persian fleet in the battle of Salamis. Victory over the Persians was ensured after the battle of Plataea (479 BC), to the northwest of Athens, when a combined Greek army annihilated the Persians.

In the aftermath of the battle of Plataea, a vow was made by the victors never to rebuild the shrines that were destroyed in the war, preserving them instead as memorials for later generations.

Pericles, who was a general and statesman, came to power in Athens around 461 BC. He considered the oath of Plataea to have been fulfilled, as thirty years had elapsed from the Persian invasion, and proceeded to reconstruct the temples on the Acropolis. He gathered together the best architects and artists in the city and plans were drawn up to erect new buildings that would outshine those torn down by the Persians. The Periclean building programme enhanced the lower city with new monuments, such as the Temple of Hephaestus, also known as the Theseion, and the Painted Stoa or Poikile situated near the Agora (marketplace).


Athens – The Destination


Athens was named after Athena, the Greek goddess of wisdom, which is certainly fitting for the birthplace itself. Evidence of its ancient heyday is everywhere, in the remnants of monuments, statuary and sacred sites that are still revered as survivors of one of history’s most important eras.

A Poseidon adventure in art

In Greek mythology, Poseidon is the god of sea, so it is only fitting that the astoundingly wrought bronze statue of him was raised from the bottom of the Aegean Sea, where it lay for centuries after a shipwreck off the Cape of Artemision. The two-meter tall figure stands with arms extended and leaning forward on its left leg. The right hand once held a trident, and the unknown sculptor clearly was a master in accurately duplicating the complicated balancing act that goes into the seemingly simple motion of throwing a spear.

This work of art is one of the many stunning bronzes at the National Archeological Museum in Athens. The museum’s collection – which includes pieces that date all the way back to the prehistoric period – offers the best collection of Greek art in the world. Renovations closed the museum for a year and half, but it was reopened just in time for the 2004 Olympic Games.

At 260 feet above the city, the Acropolis (“high city”) is not only the highest point in Athens, but for many people it is the high point of any visit to Greece. It is the oldest known settlement in Greece and was a sacred site for ancient Athenians.

During the period of 448 to 420 B.C., the distinguished Athenian statesman Pericles commissioned the construction of four new monuments on the Acropolis at the site of former ruins. The Athenian sculptor Phidias presided over the construction and interior design. The Ionic Erechtheum includes the Porch of Caryatids, with its column in the shape of monumental female figures that identify remains a mystery. The Ionic Temples of Athena Nike, dedicated to the cult of Athena as the goddess of victory, was built during the Peloponnesian War, its frieze depicts the Greek victory over the Persians in the battle of Plataea. The Propylaea, the gateway to the Acropolis with rows of both Doric and Ionic columns, replaced an earlier version destroyed by the Persians. And of course, the Acropolis remains home to what’s left of the Parthenon.

The Parthenon, designed by architects Iktinos and Kallikrates, took 15 years to complete. It was the closest to Pericles’ heart: Among various friezes depicting life among gods, the large statue of Athena represented his homage to the goddess and to the greatness of Athens.

Even in A.D. 131, savvy developers like the Roman Emperor Hadrian recognized the importance of signage. “This is the city of Hadrian and not of Theseus,” reads the inscription on Hadrian’s arch, situated at the foot of the Acropolis and once the marker between Hadrianopolis and the Athens city limits. The side facing the Acropolis and ancient Athens reads, ” This is Athens, the city of Theseus.”

Like all the surrounding monuments and the Athens infrastructure itself, Hadrian’s Arch has undergone a major facelift. The 60-foot high archway, constructed of Pentelic marble, upheld by columns with Corthinian capitals and topped by a series of Corinthians columns, lost a bit of structural stability in the mid-18th century, when 8 of its columns were removed.

Restorers shored up the arch, cleaned away centuries of pollution and repaired its cracks, just in time for the 2004 Olympic Games.

The Evzones

The Evzones were once the elite soldiers of the Greek army. Today they are the presidential guards, a ceremonial unit that maintains watch over The Parliament, The Presidential Mansion and The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. The soldiers wear a traditional and highly photogenic uniform comprising a scarlet cap with a long black tassel, a cotton tunic, black knee tassels above white stockings, red clogs with black pompons and a woolen kilt called a fustanella. The fustanella has 400 pleats, one for each year that the Greeks were on the occupation of the Ottoman Empire. Bearing leather cartridge belts and rifles with a bayonet, the soldiers maintain strict physical discipline as they stand at attention and resist tourists’ attempts to distract them.

A changing of guard is performed daily before the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, but on Sundays, the complete ceremony – involving an army band and dozens of soldiers – is conducted.

Alice in Wonderland

Imagine Alice in Wonderland’s tumble into a magical world, and you will have an idea what this-off-beaten-path attraction in the Village of Paiania is like. Far larger than a rabbit hole, Koutouki Cave is a natural wonder that will awe you with its colors and formations. In 1926, a goat disappeared from its herd where it was grazing on the slope of Mount Ymittos. A search turned up a small crevice, and a brave soul descended by rope into the abyss below. The goat had not survived the fall, but its intended rescuer returned with a story of a beautiful underground chamber.

The vertical cave consists of a 38.5 meter shaft that opens onto a large cavern with a diameter of about 60 meters. Guided tours take visitors in through a man-made entrance and lead them on a path through stalactites and stalagmites formed by mineral deposits from water seeping through the limestone of the mountain. The tour ends with a light show accompanied by classical music. It’s just a short taxi ride from Athens to nearby Paiania.


Seeing the Sights of Athens Through Taxi Tours


There is no denying how Athens is one of the most important sites in the world for political, economic and aesthetic advancement and enhancement. For many people, it IS the most significant place in the world, period. And this birthplace of western philosophy seems to have fanned its mysticism throughout the ages. Today, Athens is still one of the most visited sites in the world. Many people want to retrace the footsteps of famous philosophers, writers and artists. Not to mention that Athens has a rugged beauty that merits separate praise.

This busy city is made up of twelve hills, seven of which play a historical role in Athens’ rise. Acropolis and Lycavittos are the two most prominent as it is where most of the important historical landmarks such as the Parthenon, Temple of Athena, Theatre of Dionysius and Temple of Olympian Zeus is found. Being made up of seven hills though, Athens is a difficult place to tour if you’re planning to do it via foot. Unless you plan to isolate yourself to a particular section throughout your trip, let’s say in Acropolis, for example, then conquering it via foot would be fine. But if you want an overall tour of the area, trekking it just won’t do especially when there’s a time element involved. You can rely on their Metro train system which is quite effective and cheap to boot. One can take you to the city center for €6. For those traveling in groups, there are packages for three or more which can be purchased in the different stations. Buses and a suburban railway system will also do.

However if comfort and convenience is a priority, then taking an Athens taxi is the best mode of transportation whilst in the area. You can get one in advance prior to arriving so an itinerary can be planned for you. Getting a package in advance will also garner you discounts. Should you decide to get one from the airport though, you will be paying €30-35 for the single ride and you can negotiate for a taxi tour from there. Taxi tours in Athens is one of the easiest ways to go around in the area. Overall price will depend on what you and your driver will agree to. Be careful when flagging taxis. Some of them may take advantage that you’re a tourist and will not flag down their meters in hopes for getting a bulk price. There are also tariffs involved. Make sure that the Tariff is Tariff 1. Tariff 2 doubles the rate and is applicable after midnight. Make sure to read the driver well. If you think the rate is abnormally high, then check with an English-speaking local to confirm the price.

Make sure also that you’re getting taxis from a reliable company. Although canary yellow taxis are very common in Athens, you will have no hold if the driver tries to fraud you whereas a taxi that hails under a company will be more careful. As common practice, taxis follow two rates, one that applies inside the city limits including the airport and one that applies outside of it. The minimum fare of Rate 1 is €1 while the minimum fare of Rate 2 is €2.65. If you’re from the airport, the fare will start at €3.20 and if there’s heavy luggage involved then a minimum rate will be added to that too.

Taxi tours can be quite tricky but many attest that it’s all worth it considering you get to see the sights of Athens at your own time and pace.